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Barberton Supergroup

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Barberton Supergroup

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The greenstones are economically important, hosting many gold, antimony, copper-zinc, iron, asbestos, talc, mercury, magnesite and gemstone deposits. Rocks found in this stratum are arenite, conglomerate, shale, lava, pyroclastic, lutaceous arenite and volcanic rocks. The Barberton Mountain Land is the most-significant gold-producing greenstone belt in South Africa.  The main Groups included in this Supergroup are:

Onverwacht Group of ultramafic to mafic volcanic rock,

Fig Tree Group consisting of greywacke, shale, chert and dacitic volcanic rock

Moodies group consisting of conglomerates, sandstone, siltstone and shale.


Along the Limpopo River water is abundant due to lime deposits and and deep weathering. As much as 70 l/s can be pumped from a borehole. Water also abundant in “block” dolerite (highly fractured) towards Musina. More to the south, feldspates weathers to clay and therfore boreholes will have lower yields.

Areas where there are many dykes will have good groundwater (e.g. Pietersburg's boreholes can produce up to 40 l/s).

The granites of Johannesburg and Parys are low yielding due to very little weathering. However water is found along dykes or quartz veins.