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Bushveld Igeneous Complex

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Bushveld Igeneous Complex

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The Bushveld Igneous Complex (or BIC) is a large layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust which has been tilted and eroded and now outcrops around what appears to be the edge of a great geological basin. Located in South Africa, the BIC contains some of the richest ore deposits on Earth. The reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs), platinum, palladium, osmium, iridium, rhodium, and ruthenium are the world's largest, and there are vast quantities of iron, tin, chromium, titanium and vanadium. Gabbro or norite is also quarried from parts of the Complex.

The Bushveld Igneous Complex is divided into an eastern and western lobe, with a further northern extension. All three sections of the system were formed around the same time about 2 billion years ago. Vast quantities of molten rock from the Earth's mantle were brought to surface through long vertical cracks in the Earth's crust creating the geological intrusion known as the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The effects of these injections of molten rock over time, combined with the crystallisation of different minerals at different temperatures, resulted in the formation of a structure rather like a layered cake consisting of distinct rock strata, including three PGM-bearing layers, referred to as reefs.

The complex varies in thickness, sometimes reaching 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) thick. Lithologies vary from largely ultramafic peridotite, chromitite, harzburgite, and bronzitite in the lower sections to mafic norite, anorthosite, and gabbro toward the top, and the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite is followed by a felsic phase (the Lebowa Granite Suite).

The orebodies within the complex include the UG2 reef containing up to 43.5% chromite, and the platinum-bearing horizons Merensky Reef and Plat Reef. The Merensky Reef varies from 30 to 90 cm in thickness. It is a norite with extensive chromitite and sulfide layers or zones containing the ore. The Reef contains an average of 10 ppm platinum group metals in pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and pyrite as well as in rare platinum group minerals and alloys.





Erosion of volcanic formations play a significant role in locating water. Excessive erosion causes clay forming which reduces porosity of the system.

Granites – weathers slowly, low yielding

Felsites – compact, very little water

Rule of thumb: Contact zones ranging from 3 – 6 m and greater than 15 m below the water table will enhance the probability of finding a successful site. Yields as high as 16l/s with transmissivity of 1400m²/d in structures. North (Potgietersrus) the yield is higher.